PLS appoints collective management organisations, including the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) and NLA media access (NLA), to license on a collective basis the rights granted to PLS by publishers.
CLA issues licences to copy extracts from books, magazines, and journals of up to 5% or a single chapter or article, whichever is the greater, or an equivalent proportion of a website. CLA licences include the right to copy the works of publishers, authors and visual artists. CLA licence holders include schools, universities, colleges, public bodies (including government departments, local authorities and the NHS) and a wide variety of businesses. PLS also grants CLA permission to license repertoire in Publisher Accounts to reproduction rights organisations abroad with which CLA has a bilateral agreement.
NLA issues licences to copy extracts from magazines and websites. PLS appoints NLA to license limited rights on behalf of certain magazine publishers on its behalf as a licensing agent.
Licence development and consultation
PLS works closely with CLA, NLA and with individual publishers on the development of all new licences and on changes to existing licences. All publishers signed up to PLS are invited by means of the PLS eBulletin to participate in consultations, either in person or online through the PLS website.
All licence developments are closely scrutinised by, and are subject to the final approval of the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers (ALPSP), the Independent Publishers Guild (IPG), the Professional Publishers Association (PPA) and the Publishers Association (PA) (see Our Governance section) in consultation with and on behalf of their members, as well as by the PLS Board and (as applicable) the CLA or NLA Boards.